Regulations

1178/2011 Annex 1

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:02011R1178-20150408&from=EN

FCL.010    Definitions

For the purposes of this Part, the following definitions apply:

 

Aircraft means any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earths surface.

Airmanship means the consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objectives.

Airship means a power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft, with the exception of hot-air airships, which, for the purposes of this Part, are included in the definition of balloon.

Balloon means a lighter-than-air aircraft which is not engine-driven and sustains flight through the use of either gas or an airborne heater. For the purposes of this Part, a hot-air airship, although engine-driven, is also considered a balloon.

Class of balloon means a categorisation of balloons taking into account the lifting means used to sustain flight.

Commercial air transport means the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire.

Competency means a combination of skills, knowledge and attitude required to perform a task to the prescribed standard.

Competency element means an action which constitutes a task that has a triggering event and a terminating event that clearly defines its limits, and an observable outcome.

Competency unit means a discrete function consisting of a number of competency elements.

Co-pilot means a pilot operating other than as pilot-in-command, on an aircraft for which more than one pilot is required, but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction for a licence or rating.

Cruise relief co-pilot means a pilot who relieves the co-pilot of his/her duties at the controls during the cruise phase of a flight in multi-pilot operations above FL 200.

Dual instruction time means flight time or instrument ground time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorised instructor.

Error means an action or inaction taken by the flight crew which leads to deviations from organisational or flight intentions or expectations.

Error management means the process of detecting and responding to errors with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of errors, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.

 

Flight time:

 

for airships, it means the total time from the moment an airship is released from the mast for the purpose of taking off until the moment the airship finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and is secured on the mast;

for sailplanes, it means the total time from the moment the sailplane commences the ground run in the process of taking off until the moment the sailplane finally comes to a rest at the end of flight;

for balloons, it means the total time from the moment the basket leaves the ground for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to a rest at the end of the flight.

Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer (FNPT) means a training device which represents the flight deck or cockpit environment, including the assemblage of equipment and computer programmes necessary to represent an aircraft type or class in flight operations to the extent that the systems appear to function as in an aircraft.

Group of balloons means a categorisation of balloons, taking into account the size or capacity of the envelope

 

Night means the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority, as defined by the Member State.

Other training devices (OTD) means training aids other than flight simulators, flight training devices or flight and navigation procedures trainers which provide means for training where a complete flight deck environment is not necessary.

Performance criteria means a simple, evaluative statement on the required outcome of the competency element and a description of the criteria used to judge if the required level of performance has been achieved.

Pilot-in-command (PIC) means the pilot designated as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of the flight.

Pilot-in-command under supervision (PICUS) means a co-pilot performing, under the supervision of the pilot-in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-command.

Powered-lift aircraft means any aircraft deriving vertical lift and in flight propulsion/lift from variable geometry rotors or engines/propulsive devices attached to or contained within the fuselage or wings.

Powered sailplane means an aircraft equipped with one or more engines having, with engines inoperative, the characteristics of a sailplane.

Private pilot means a pilot who holds a licence which prohibits the piloting of aircraft in operations for which remuneration is given, with the exclusion of instruction or examination activities, as established in this Part.

Proficiency check means the demonstration of skill to revalidate or renew ratings, and including such oral examination as may be required.

Renewal (of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken after a rating or certificate has lapsed for the purpose of renewing the privileges of the rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.

Revalidation (of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken within the period of validity of a rating or certificate which allows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.

Route sector means a flight comprising take-off, departure, cruise of not less than 15 minutes, arrival, approach and landing phases.

Sailplane means a heavier-than-air aircraft which is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its fixed lifting surfaces, the free flight of which does not depend on an engine.

Single-pilot aircraft means an aircraft certificated for operation by one pilot.

Skill test means the demonstration of skill for a licence or rating issue, including such oral examination as may be required.

Solo flight time means flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft.

Student pilot-in-command (SPIC) means a student pilot acting as pilot-in-command on a flight with an instructor where the latter will only observe the student pilot and shall not influence or control the flight of the aircraft.

Threat means events or errors which occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity and which must be managed to maintain the margin of safety.

Threat management means the process of detecting and responding to the threats with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of threats, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.

Touring Motor Glider (TMG) means a specific class of powered sailplane having an integrally mounted, non-retractable engine and a non-retractable propeller. It shall be capable of taking off and climbing under its own power according to its flight manual.

Type of aircraft means a categorisation of aircraft requiring a type rating as determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, and which include all aircraft of the same basic design including all modifications thereto except those which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics.

FCL.060    Recent experience

(a)     Balloons. A pilot shall not operate a balloon in commercial air transport or carrying passengers unless he/she has completed in the preceding 180 days:

(1) at least 3 flights as a pilot flying in a balloon, of which at least 1 shall be in a balloon of the relevant class and group; or

(2) 1 flight in the relevant class and group of balloon under the supervision of an instructor qualified in accordance with Subpart J. 

(b)     Aeroplanes, helicopters, powered-lift, airships and sailplanes. A pilot shall not operate an aircraft in commercial air transport or carrying  

FCL.205.B    BPL Privileges and conditions

(a)     The privileges of the holder of a BPL are to act as PIC on balloons.   

(b)     Holders of a BPL shall be restricted to act without remuneration in non-commercial operations until they have:

(1) attained the age of 18 years;

(2) completed 50 hours of flight time and 50 take-offs and landings as PIC on balloons;

(3) passed a proficiency check with an examiner on a balloon in the specific class.    

(c)     Notwithstanding paragraph (b), the holder of a BPL with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(B) or the BPL;

(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;

 

(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings and certificates attached to these licences.

       
FCL.210.B    BPL Experience requirements and crediting

(a)     Applicants for a BPL shall have completed on balloons in the same class and group at least 16 hours of flight instruction, including at least:

(1) 12 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 10 inflations and 20 take-offs and landings; and

(3) 1 supervised solo flight with a minimum flight time of at least 30 minutes.

(b)     Applicants for a BPL holding an LAPL(B) shall be fully credited towards the requirements for the issue of a BPL.

Applicants for a BPL who held an LAPL(B) within the period of 2 years before the application shall be fully credited towards the requirements of theoretical knowledge and flight instruction. 
FCL.220.B    BPL Extension of privileges to tethered flights

The privileges of the BPL shall be limited to non-tethered flights. This limitation may be removed when the pilot complies with the requirements in FCL.130.B.

FCL.225.B    BPL Extension of privileges to another balloon class or group

The privileges of the BPL shall be limited to the class and group of balloons in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has:

(a) in the case of an extension to another class within the same group, complied with the requirements in FCL.135.B;

(b) in the case of an extension to another group within the same class of balloons, completed at least:

(1) 2 instruction flights on a balloon of the relevant group; and

(2) the following hours of flight time as PIC on balloons:

(i) for balloons with an envelope capacity between 3 401 m3 and 6 000 m3, at least 100 hours;

(ii) for balloons with an envelope capacity between 6 001 m3 and 10 500 m3, at least 200 hours;

(iii) for balloons with an envelope capacity of more than 10 500 m3, at least 300 hours;

(iv) for gas balloons with an envelope capacity of more than 1 260 m3, at least 50 hours.

 

FCL.230.B    BPL Recency requirements

(a)     Holders of a BPL shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when they have completed in one class of balloons in the last 24 months at least:

(1) 6 hours of flight time as PIC, including 10 take-offs and landings; and

(2) 1 training flight with an instructor in a balloon within the appropriate class;

(3) in addition, in the case of pilots qualified to fly more than one class of balloons, in order to exercise their privileges in the other class, they shall have completed at least 3 hours of flight time on that class within the last 24 months, including 3 take-offs and landings.      

(b)     Holders of a BPL shall only operate a balloon of the same a group of the balloon in which the training flight is completed or a balloon of a group with a smaller envelope size:       

(c)     Holders of a BPL who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) pass a proficiency check with an examiner in a balloon within the appropriate class; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a).      

(d)     In the case of (c)(1) the holder of the BPL shall only operate a balloon of the same group of the balloon in which the proficiency check is completed or a balloon of a group with a smaller envelope size.    

FCL.110.B    LAPL(B) Experience requirements and crediting

(a)     Applicants for an LAPL(B) shall have completed on balloons of the same class at least 16 hours of flight instruction, including at least:

(1) 12 hours of dual flight instruction;

(2) 10 inflations and 20 take-offs and landings; and

(3) 1 supervised solo flight with a minimum flight time of at least 30 minutes.

(b)     Crediting. Applicants with prior experience as PIC on balloons may be credited towards the requirements in (a).

The amount of credit shall be decided by the ATO where the pilot undergoes the training course, on the basis of a pre-entry flight test, but shall in any case:

(1) not exceed the total flight time as PIC on balloons;

(2) not exceed 50 % of the hours required in (a);

(3) not include the requirements of (a)(2) and (a)(3). 
FCL.130.B    LAPL(B) Extension of privileges to tethered flights

(a)     The privileges of the LAPL(B) shall be limited to non-tethered flights. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed at least 3 tethered instruction flights.   

(b)     The completion of the additional training shall be entered in the logbook and signed by the instructor.

(c)     In order to maintain this privilege, pilots shall complete a minimum of 2 tethered flights during the last 24 months.  

(d)     When the pilot does not comply with the requirement in (c), he/she shall perform the additional number of tethered flights flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor in order to renew the privileges.
FCL.135.B    LAPL(B) Extension of privileges to another balloon class

The privileges of the LAPL(B) shall be limited to the class of balloons in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed in the other class, at an ATO, at least:

(a) 5 dual instruction flights; or

(b) in the case of an LAPL(B) for hot-air balloons wishing to extend their privileges to hot-air airships, 5 hours of dual flight instruction time; and

(c) a skill test, during which they shall demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other class in the following subjects:

— Principles of flight,

— Operational procedures,

— Flight performance and planning, and

— Aircraft general knowledge.

 

FCL.140.B    LAPL(B) Recency requirements

(a)     Holders of an LAPL(B) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when they have completed, in one class of balloons in the last 24 months, at least:

(1) 6 hours of flight time as PIC, including 10 take-offs and landings; and

(2) 1 training flight with an instructor;

(3) in addition, if the pilot is qualified to fly more than one class of balloons, in order to exercise their privileges in the other class, they shall have completed at least 3 hours of flight time in that class within the last 24 months, including 3 take-offs and landings.    

(b)     Holders of an LAPL(B) who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall, before they resume the exercise of their privileges:

(1) pass a proficiency check with an examiner in the appropriate class; or

(2) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a).